Treść głównego artykułu

Abstrakt

Japonia od dziesięcioleci uchodzi za technologicznego lidera oraz kolebkę największych na świecie przedsiębiorstw branży IT. Pomimo wielu osiągnięć na tym polu, kraj jeszcze do niedawna pozostawał w znacznym stopniu nieprzygotowany na wyzwania, jakie niesie ze sobą wzrost zjawiska cyberprzestępczości. Brak regulacji prawnych, instytucji zwalczających zagrożenia pochodzące z sieci oraz niedobór wyspecjalizowanych kadr zdolnych ochronić zarówno sektor państwowy, jak i prywatny trapił kolejne gabinety rządowe. Przygotowania do zbliżających się Igrzysk Olimpijskich w Tokio w 2020 r. częściowo zmieniły ten stan rzeczy, a ostatnie lata pokazują wzmożoną aktywność władz w niwelowaniu skutków zapóźnienia w polityce cybernetycznej. Celem poniższego artykułu jest przedstawienie dzisiejszego poziomu cyberbezpieczeństwa Japonii z uwzględnieniem największych zagrożeń, sposobów ich rozwiazywania w wymiarze lokalnym i międzynarodowym oraz wyzwań, jakie stoją przed państwem w najbliższych latach.

Szczegóły artykułu

Referencje

  1. 6 million cases of personal information leaked in Japan in 2016, survey shows. (2017). Japan Times. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2017/02/28/national/crime-legal/12-6-million-personal-info-leak-cases-seen-japan-2016-card-info-targeted/
  2. Braue, D. (2014). Japan’s banking malware surge pushes Australia out of top 10. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: https://www.cso.com.au/article/552261/japan_banking_malware_surge_pushes_australia_top_10/
  3. BSA. The Software Alliance. (2015). Asia-Pacific Cybersecurity Dashboard, Country: Japan. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017, z: http://www.bsa.org/~/media/Files/Policy/Security/CyberSecure/study_apac_cybersecurity_en.pdf
  4. Center for Strategic and International Studies. (2014). Net Losses: Estimating the Global Cost of Cybercrime: Economic impact of cybercrime II. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017, z: https://www.mcafee.com/de/resources/reports/rp-economic-impact-cybercrime2.pdf
  5. Deloitte. (2015). Asia-Pacific Defense Outlook 2016. Defense in Four Romains. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: https://www2.deloitte.com/content/dam/Deloitte/global/Documents/Public-Sector/gx-ps-ap-defense-outlook-2016-160216.pdf
  6. Department of Commerce. (2016a). Japan – Safety and Security. (2016). Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: https://www.export.gov/article?id=Japan-Safety-and-Security
  7. Department of Commerce. (2016b). Mission Statement. Cyber-security Business Development Mission to Japan, South Korea and Taiwan. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://2016.export.gov/trademissions/cyberasia/
  8. Department of Defense. (2003). United States-Japan Joint Statement on Promoting Globar Cyber Security, Final Draft. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017, z: http://web.ita.doc.gov/ITI/itiHome.nsf/51a29d31d-11b7ebd85256cc600599b80/1596505329eb670285256de2006de302/$FILE/US-Japan%20Joint%20Statement%20on%20Promoting%20Global%20Cyber%20Security.pdf
  9. Gady, F-S. (2015a). Japan and Europe Step Up Cooperation in Cyberspace. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://thediplomat.com/2015/01/japan-and-europe-step-up-cooperation-in-cyberspace/
  10. Gady, F-S. (2015b). Japan Hit by Cybeattacks at an Unprecedential Level. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://thediplomat.com/2015/02/japan-hit-by-cyberattacks-at-an-unprecedented-level/
  11. Gady, F-S. (2017). Japan’s Defense Ministry Plans to Boost Number of Cyber Warriors. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://thediplomat.com/2017/07/japans-defense-ministry-plans-to-boost-number-of-cyberwarriors/
  12. Information Security Policy Council. The First National Strategy on Information Security. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: https://www.nisc.go.jp/eng/pdf/national_strategy_001_eng.pdf
  13. Japan Holds Cybersecurity Drill. (2014). Information Management, May/June.
  14. Japan pension system hacked, 1.25 million cases of personal data leaked. (2015). Reuters. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://www.reuters.com/article/us-japan-pensions-attacks-idUSKBN0OH1OP20150601
  15. Joint Statement of the U.S.-Japan Cyber Defense Policy Working Group. (2015). Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://www.mod.go.jp/j/press/news/2015/05/30a_1.pdf
  16. Kazak, A. (2017). Russia, Japan to revive ‘2+2’ format talks, discuss Asia-Pacific security. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: https://www.rbth.com/international/2017/03/20/russia-japan-talks-asia-pacific-security-722806
  17. Kallender, P. (2014). Japan, The Ministry of Defense and Cyber-Security. The Rusi Journal, 159(1).
  18. Kallender, P, Hughes, W. (2017). Japan’s Emerging Trajectory as a ‘Cyber Power’: From Securitization to Militarization of Cyberspace. The Journal of Stategic Studies, 2017, 40(1-2).
  19. Kingston, J. (2016). Japan’s cybersecurity upgrade – too Littre, too late?. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://www.japantimes.co.jp/opinion/2016/05/21/commentary/japans-cybersecurity-upgrade-little-late/#.WW9UzVFLe70
  20. Kshetri, N. (2014). Japan’s Changing Cybersecurity Landscape, Computer, 47(1).
  21. Kshetri, N. (2016). The Quest to Cyber Superiority: Cybersecurity Regulations, Frameworks and Strategies of Major Economies. New York: Springer.
  22. Kudo, Y. (2016). Polls show Sino-Japan public sentiment worses; direct interaction key to improvement. Pobrano10 lipca 2017 z: http://www.genron-npo.net/en/opinion_polls/archives/5310.html
  23. Lennon, M. (2011). Japan’s Largest Defense Contractor Hit by Cyber Attack. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://www.securityweek.com/japans-largest-defense-contractor-hit-cyber-attack
  24. Lewis, J-A. (2015). U.S.-Japan Cooperation in Cybersecurity. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017, z: https://csis-prod.s3.amazonaws.com/s3fs-public/legacy_files/files/publication/151105_Lewis_USJapanCyber_Web.pdf
  25. Matsubara, M. (2012). A Long and Winding Road for Cybersecurity Cooperation Between Japan and United States. Harvard Asia Quaterly, 14(1-2).
  26. Matsubara, M. (2017). How Japan Is Aiming to Close the Cybersecurity Skills Gap Before Tokyo 2020. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: https://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2017/05/cso-japan-aiming-closecybersecurity-skills-gap-tokyo-2020/
  27. Matsubara, M, Kriz, D. (2016), Putting METI Cyberthreat Information Sharing Recommendation Into Action in Japan. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: https://researchcenter.paloaltonetworks.com/2016/07/csoputting-the-meti-cyberthreat-information-sharing-recommendation-into-action-in-japan/
  28. Ministry of Defense Japan. (2012). Toward Stable and Effective Use of Cyberspace. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://www.mod.go.jp/e/d_act/others/pdf/stable_and_effective_use_cyberspace.pdf
  29. Morgan, S. (2015). Cybersecurity Market Reaches $75 Billion In 2015 ; Expected To Reach $170 Billion By 2020. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: https://www.forbes.com/sites/stevemorgan/2015/12/20/cybersecurity%E2%80%8B-%E2%80%8Bmarket-reaches-75-billion-in-2015%E2%80%8B%E2%80%8B-%E2%80%8Bexpected-to-reach-170-billion-by-2020/
  30. National Center of Incident Readiness and Strategy for Cybersecurity. (2015). ASEAN-Japan Collaboration on Information Security. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: https://www.nisc.go.jp/eng/fw_top.html
  31. National Information Security Policy Council. (2009). The Second National Strategy on Information Security. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: https://www.nisc.go.jp/eng/pdf/national_strategy_002_eng.pdf
  32. National Institute for Defense Studies. (2014). NIDS China Security Report 2014: Diversification of Roles in the People’s Liberation Army and People’s Armed Police. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://www.nids.mod.go.jp/publication/chinareport/pdf/china_report_EN_web_2014_A01.pdf
  33. Nippon Telegraph and Telephone. (2015). Cybersecurity for Busuness Executives. An NTT publication for top management. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://www.ntt.co.jp/topics_e/CfBE/img/Cybersecurity_for_Business_Executives2.pdf
  34. Nitta, Y. (2013). Japan’s approach towards cyber security. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://cybersummit.info/sites/cybersummit.info/files/Japan_edited%20v2.pdf-FINAL.pdf
  35. Nitta, Y. (2014a). National Cyber Secruity Strategy. Are We Making Progress? Japan’s Efforts and Challenges, Georgetown Journal of International Affairs, 15(1)
  36. Nitta, Y. (2014b). Review of the Japan Cybersecurity Strategy, ISPSW Strategy Series: Focus on Defense and International Security, 290.
  37. Operation Dust Storm, hackers target Japanese Critical Infrastructure. 2015. Cyber Defence Magazine. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://www.cyberdefensemagazine.com/operation-dust-storm-hackers-targetjapanese-critical-infrastructure/
  38. Parameswaran, P. (2017). Japan-ASEAN Cyber Cooperation in the Spotlight. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://thediplomat.com/2017/02/japan-asean-cyber-cooperation-in-the-spotlight/
  39. Pawlak, P, Barmpaliou, P-N. (2017). Politics of cybersecurity capacity building: conundrum and opportunity. Journal of Cyber Policy, 2(1).
  40. Pollmann, M. (2016). Japan’s Achilles Heel: Cybersecurity. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://thediplomat.com/2016/04/japans-achilles-heel-cybersecurity/
  41. Record 12,8 billion cyberattacks seen in Japan last year. (2014). Japan Times. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://www.japantimes.co.jp/news/2014/02/11/business/tech/record-12-8-billion-cyberattacks-detected-injapan-last-year/#.WWywqVFLe73
  42. The Government of Japan. (2015). Cybersecurity Strategy. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: https://www.nisc.go.jp/eng/pdf/cs-strategy-en.pdf
  43. Thomas, N. (2009). Cyber Security in East Asia: Governing Anarchy, Asian Security, 5(1).
  44. Tsuchiya, M. (2011a). Cybersecurity in East Asia: Japan and the 2009 Attacks on South Korea and the United
  45. States. W: Kim. J. Anderson (Red.), Cybersecurity: Public Sector Threats and Responses. New York: CRC Press.
  46. Tsuchiya, M. (2011b). Cybersecurity Preparedness in Japan: Rise of Threats in East Asia and Chnge of Administration. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association Annual Conference Global Governance: Political Authority in Transition.
  47. Tsuchiya, M. (2015). Japan’s Response to Cyber Threats in the Surveillance Age, Seton Hall Journal of Diplomacy and International Relations, 17(1-2).
  48. UK Trade & Investment.(2015). Cyber Security: Policies and Opportunities in Japan. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://www.exporttojapan.co.uk/reports/cyber-security-policies-and-opportunities-japan
  49. Umeda, S. (2014). Japan: Cybersecurity Basic Act Adopted. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://www.loc.gov/law/foreign-news/article/japan-cybersecurity-basic-act-adopted
  50. Ventre, D. (2012). Cyberspace in Japan’s New Defense Strategy, W: D. Ventre (Ed.), Cyber Conflict: Competing National Perspectives. London: Wiley.
  51. Wasilewski, J. (2016). Przestępczość w cyberprzestrzeni – zagadnienia definicyjne. Przegląd Bezpieczeństwa Wewnętrznego, 15.
  52. World Economic Forum. (2016). The Global Information Technology Report 2016: Innovating in the Digital Economy. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://www3.weforum.org/docs/GITR2016/WEF_GITR_Full_Report.pdf
  53. Yonhap Agency. (2017). S. Korea, Japan, China to discuss N. Korea’s cyber threats in Tokyo this week. Pobrano 10 lipca 2017 z: http://english.yonhapnews.co.kr/news/2017/02/09/0200000000AEN20170209010100315.html